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Brief research reports based on the CHKS data.

Factsheet 1 (pdf): Health Risks, Resilience, and the Academic Performance Index

This factsheet describes how schools where students are low in health risk factors and high in protective factors have higher API scores than other schools.

Factsheet 2 (pdf): Student Tobacco Use and TUPE Competitive Grant Funding

This factsheet examines trends in student tobacco use in high schools with competitive TUPE grants and schools without such grants. The results indicated that high schools that received TUPE grants have been more successful than other schools in reducing tobacco use and its precursors.

Factsheet 3 (pdf): Are Student Health Risks and Low Resilience Assets an Impediment to the Academic Progress of Schools?

This factsheet describes how health risk and resilience are longitudinally related to subsequent changes in standardized test scores. The results indicate that health risk and low levels of resilience assets impede the progress in raising test scores.

Factsheet 4 (pdf): Bias-related Harassment among California Students

This factsheet uses CHKS data to analyze the prevalence of harassment in California Schools, and correlate that harassment with a variety of other behaviors. Results indicate that in addition to the negative physical and mental effects of harassment itself, students who are harassed are at greater risk of a wide range of detrimental behaviors and experiences, including poorer grades, school attendance, feelings related to depression, and substance abuse.

Factsheet 5 (pdf): Links between Cigarette Smoking and Other Substance Use, Violence, and School Problems

This factsheet summarizes the results of an analysis of CHKS data on AOD use, violence and school problems among middle and secondary school students, comparing ‘current smokers’ with ‘nonsmokers’. The results suggest that cigarette smoking among youth has become a marker for other risk behaviors and problems, especially among 7th graders, and that efforts to reduce student smoking will be more successful if embedded in approaches that address a broad range of risk behaviors and problems.

Factsheet 6 (pdf): Substance Use and Other Problems Among Youth in Foster and Relative Care

This factsheet summarizes the results of an analysis of substance abuse and other risk behaviors, school problems, and resilience, among secondary students in foster care or living with a relative other than a parent, compared to youth living with a parent. Compared to Parent Home Youth, the Foster Care Youth reported much higher rates of substance abuse, poor school attendance and grades, and more violence-related behaviors, as well as harassment and feelings of incapacitating sadness. They also were more likely to be low in caring adult relationships and total environmental assets. Relative Home Youth tended to fall in the mid-range.

Factsheet 7 (pdf): Risk Behaviors and Problems Among Youth in Nontraditional Schools

This factsheet summarizes the results of an analysis of risk-taking behavior among students that attend Nontraditional Schools (such as Continuation and Community Day Schools), compared to 11th graders. It finds generally higher rates of substance use among Nontraditional School students when compared to Grade 11 students and concludes that “there is much more to be done to create the intimate, nurturing atmosphere that nontraditional schools need to ensure these high-risk youth are reconnected with school and graduate”.

Factsheet 8 (pdf): The Achievement Gap, School Well-Being, and Learning Supports

This factsheet summarizes a study of how academic performance and school well-being vary by the racial/ethnic composition of schools. School well-being refers to a school having a developmentally positive learning climate characterized by environmental supports, safety, and school attachment, as measured by student-reported data collected in 2004-06 by the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS). Both academic performance and school well-being varied consistently and persistently across schools by racial/ethnic groupings.

Factsheet 9 (pdf): Racial/Ethnic Differences in School Performance, Engagement, Safety, and Supports

This factsheet describes how 17 school-based CHKS indicators covering these areas differed significantly across eight racial/ethnic groups of secondary students. Overall, White and Asian students reported the most positive outcomes, and African American and Latino students had the least positive outcomes in regard to school performance, engagement, and safety. Latinos were the lowest of all groups in school developmental supports; African-Americans, in school connectedness and safety. The results demostrate that underlying the Achievement Gap, there are also gaps in school engagement, safety, and supports that need to be addressed.

Factsheet 10 (pdf): Harassment Among California Students, 2006-08

This factsheet updates Factsheet #4, providing current and expanded data on harassment among California students in 2006-08. The results suggest little if any progress has been made in reducing harassment (especially for race/ethnicity) among California secondary students. Thirty-seven percent of secondary students self-reported being harassed at least once. Even higher rates were found for types of verbal harassment. Victims of harassment are more likely to have school-related health-risks, and feelings and experiences that compromise learning and well-being. They are more likely to not feel safe and connected to school; have higher truancy; and experience lower developmental supports at school (caring adult relations, high expectations, and opportunities for meaningful participation). Further, harassed youth reported higher rates of fighting and weapons possession at school, as well as risk of depression.

Factsheet 11 (pdf): Students Who Report Chronic Sadness, 2006-08

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of 7th and 9th graders who reported chronic sadness/hope­lessness on the 2006–2008 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS). Three in ten secondary students report that, in the previous 12 months, they felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for two weeks or more that they stopped doing some usual activities, an indicator of student mental health needs. Seventh and 9th graders who experience such chronic sadness, compared to their peers who do not, are at elevated risk of a wide range of educational, health, social, and emotional problems, including lower school attendance, performance, and connectedness. They also report lower levels of the developmental supports in their schools and communities that have been shown to mitigate these problems.

Factsheet 12 (pdf): Students Who Contemplated Suicide, 2009-10

This factsheet summarizes the characteristics of 9th and 11th grade students who responded “yes” to the question, "During the past 12 months did you ever seriously consider attempting suicide?" on the 2009-2010 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS). Student responses to the CHKS suicide contemplation question are compared with responses to other CHKS items related to student behaviors.

Factsheet 13 (pdf): Racial/ethnic Differences in Student Achievement, Engagement, Supports & Safety: Are They Greater Within Schools or Between Schools in California?

This factsheet summarizes the results of a report that quantifies the extent to which observed racial/ethnic gaps in achievement and in school engagement, safety, and student developmental supports occurs within and/or between secondary schools. The results confirm that important gaps exist on academic achievement test scores and on CHKS indicators of school-related well-being between White and non-White students, although less for Asians than for other groups. Overall, non-Whites feel less connected, safe, and supported at school, and they are more likely to have been harassed for their race/ethnicity. In the majority of cases, with notable exceptions for Asians, these racial/ethnic gaps are greater within-schools than between-schools. African American, Latino, and Asian students feel less safe, engaged, and supported than their White peers in the same school. These results highlight the important contribution to the achievement gap of racial/ethnic group inequity within a school and suggest that practices designed to ensure equal access to academic resources, opportunities, and learning supports and promotion of common experiences may be effective in ameliorating the gap.

Factsheet 14 (pdf): Racial and Ethnic Group Differences in Responses on the CHKS Closing the Achievement Gap Module (CTAG)

The race- and ethnic-group differences are summarized in responses on the 10-item CHKS supplementary Closing the Achievement Gap (CTAG) Module as reported by over 200,000 students in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades in 142 districts and 769 schools during the 2008-10 school years. The results reveal moderate variation across groups, with particularly large group differences in high school and in regard to issues of respect and racial/ethnic tension. Non-Asian minorities reported lower outcomes than Whites and Asians. Analysis of several items asking about instructional support revealed an exception to this pattern: Whites reported less instructional support from teachers and adults at school than that reported by other racial/ethnic groups.

Factsheet 15 (pdf): LCAP Baseline Data on School Climate and Pupil Engagement

This factsheet summarizes important data from the 2013-15 Biennial Statewide CHKS for understanding the overall status of California secondary students and schools in the first baseline years of Local Control and Accountability Planning in regard to two LCAP priorities — school climate and pupil engagement. These results can be used to monitor the state’s progress in improving these priorities. This factsheet also offers insight into factors that might be affecting them.

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